OROPHARYNGEAL DYSPHAGIA IN ELDERLY PERSONS - ETIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND SYMPTOMATOLOGY
Swallowing disorders can occur at any age, although they occur more often in old age when the physiology of swallowing changes due to aging. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a very common clinical condition affecting 13% of the total population over 65 years of age and 51% of institutionalized older people. Given that oropharyngeal dysphagia can lead to increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly, it is necessary to prevent the occurrence of dysphagia in this population group as much as possible. In relation to this, the paper aims to provide insight into contemporary research into the etiology, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of oropharyngeal dysphagia in the elderly. In this review study, the electronic databases of Google Scholar Advanced Search and the Consortium of Serbian Libraries for Unified Procurement - KoBSON were searched. The following keywords and phrases were used in the search: swallowing, dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia, aging, age and dysphagia, etiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the clinical picture of oropharyngeal dysphagia, pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia. This systematic review and meta-analysis of papers showed significant progress in the effective diagnostic approach of oropharyngeal dysphagia during the last years but also a significant lack of knowledge about adequate modifications of drugs applied during the treatment of patients with dysphagia. A good understanding of the etiology, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of oropharyngeal dysphagia would eliminate the harmful effects of pharmacological substances on the function of swallowing, given that the elderly, on the advice of a doctor, use them daily.
Petrović-Lazić M, Kulić, M. Biološki aspekti komunikacije kod laringektomiranih bolesnika. Medicinski fakultet Univerziteta u Istočnom Sarajevu – Medicinski fakultet, Sarajevo, 2014.
Hansen T, Nielsen RL, Houlind MB, Tavenier J, Rasmussen LJH, Jørgensen ML, et al. Dysphagia prevalence, time course, and association with probable sarcopenia, inactivity, malnutrition, and disease status in older patients admitted to an emergency department: a secondary analysis of cohort study data. Geriat. 2021;46(6):1-14. doi: 10.3390/geriatrics6020046.
Muhle P, Wirth R, Glahn J, Dziewas R. Age-related changes in swallowing. Physiology and pathophysiology. Nervenarzt. 2015;86(4):440-51. doi: 10.1007/s00115-014-4183-7.
Clave P, Shaker R. Dysphagia: current reality and scope of the problem. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;12(5):259-70.
Wirth R, Dziewas R. Dysphagia and pharmacotherapy in older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2019;22(1):25-9.
Cabre M, Serra-Prat M, Palomera E, Almirall J, Pallares R, Clavé P. Prevalence and prognostic implications of dysphagia in elderly patients with pneumonia. Age Ageing. 2010;39(1):39-45.doi: 10.1093/ageing/afp100.
World Population Ageing. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division2019. WPA;2020.
Nogueira D, Reis E. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:221-7.
Portinha S. Cross-sectional study to investigate the presence of sarcopenic dysphagia in a Portuguese geriatric population. J Stat Health Decis. 2021;3:38-9.doi: 10.34624/jshd.v3i1.24820.
Westmark S, Melgaard D, Rethmeier LO, Ehlers HL. The cost of dysphagia in geriatric oatients. Outcomes Res. 2018;10:321-6.
Chaleekrua S, Janpol K, Wattanapan P. Swallowing problems among community-dwelling elderly in Northeastern Thailand. J Prim Care Community Health. 2021;12:9596. doi: 10.1177/21501327211019596.
Baijens LW, Clavé P, Cras P, Ekberg O, Forster A, Kolb GF, et al. European Society for Swallowing Disorders-European Union Geriatric Medicine Society White Paper: Oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome. Clin Interv Aging.2016;11:1403-28. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S107750.
Suntrup S, Kemmling A, Warnecke T, Hamacher C, Oelenberg S, Niederstadt T, et al. The impact of lesion location on dysphagia incidence, pattern and complications in acute stroke. Part 1: dysphagia incidence, severity and aspiration. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22(5):832-8.
Miarons MS, Clavé P, Wijngaard R, Ortega O, Arreola V, Nascimento W, et al. Pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia assessed by videofluoroscopy in patients with dementia taking antipsychotics. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018;19(9):812.e1-812.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2018.04.016.
Guanyabens N, Cabib C, Ungueti A, Duh M, Arreola V, Palomeras E, et al. The Impact of periventricular leukoaraiosis in post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a swallowing biomechanics and MRI-based study. Dysphagia. 2022 Aug 23. doi: 10.1007/s00455-022-10509-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35997813.
Cabib C, Ortega O, Vilardell N, Mundet L, Clavé P, Rofes L. Chronic post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia is associated with impaired cortical activation to pharyngeal sensory inputs. Eur J Neurol. 2017;24(11):1355-62.
Li S, Chen Q, Yu B, Xue K, Luo C, Xu Y, et al. Structural and functional changes mapped in the brains of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with/without dysphagia: a pilot study. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2009;10(5-6):280-7.doi: 10.3109/17482960902893342.
Dziewas R, Teismann IK, Suntrup S, Schiffbauer H, Steinstraeter O, Warnecke T, et al. Cortical compensation associated with dysphagia caused by selective degeneration of bulbar motor neurons. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(4):1352-60.doi: 10.1002/hbm.20603.
Suntrup S, Teismann I, Bejer J, Suttrup I, Winkels M, Mehler D, et al. Evidence for adaptive cortical changes in swallowing in Parkinson’s disease. Brain. 2013;136(Pt 3):726-38. doi: 10.1093/brain/awt004.
Yang CJ, Roh JL, Choi HK, Kim MJ, Seung-Ho C, Nam SY, et al. Pretreatment dysphagia inventory and videofluorographic swallowing study as prognostic indicators of early survival outcomes in head and neck cancer. Cancer. 2015;121(10):1588-98.doi: 10.1002/cncr.29245.
Rofes L, Arreola V, Romea M, Palomera E, Almirall J, Cabré M, et al. Pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia in the frail elderly. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22(8):851-8.
Cabib C, Ortega O, Kumru H, Palomeras E, Vilardell N, Alvarez-Berdugo D, et al. Neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: from compensation to the recovery of swallowing function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016;1380(1):121-38.doi: 10.1111/nyas.13135.
Rogus-Pulia NM, Logemann JA. Effects of reduced saliva production on swallowing in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Dysphagia. 2011;26(3):295-303.doi: 10.1007/s00455-010-9311-3.
Feng X, Todd T, Lintzenich CR, Ding J, Carr JJ, Ge Y, et al. Aging-related geniohyoid muscle atrophy is related to aspiration status in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68(7):853-60.
Butler SG, Stuart A, Leng X, Wilhelm E, Rees C, Williamson J, et al. The relationship of aspiration status with tongue and handgrip strength in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66(4):452-8.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2022 Mirjana Petrovic Lazic, Snezana Babac, Ivana Ilic Savic
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.