Biljana Jordan Andonovska, Vesna Ilija Kotevska, Alan Goce Andonovski


Background: Intensive care units (ICU) are often the epicentre of development of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms.

Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and types of ICU-acquired infections, pathogens associated with such infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of the presented pathogens.

Material and methods: In the study were included 130 patients hospitalized into the surgical ICU of the University Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care in Skopje in period of 2 months, April -Jun, 2017. who developed infection after at least 72 hours of their hospitalization. In all of them the pathogens and their antibiotic resistance pattern were identified.

Results: Twenty of 130 (15.4%) patients developed ICU-acquired infection. Most common infections were pneumonia (50%) and surgical site (30%) infections.Gram-negative organisms were more common isolated than Gram-positive organisms (83% vs.17%). The most common isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter species (30, 41.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15, 20.8%). All isolated species were MDR organisms resistant to the most used antibiotics like Cephalosporins, Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species were sensitive to Colistin, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to Vancomycin and Linezolid and Enterococcus only to Linezolid. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis showed low resistance only to Amikacin and Carbapenems.

Conclusions: Our study obtained local data about the prevalence and types of ICU-acquired infections, types of pathogens and their antibiotic resistance pattern.Based on this knowledge, clinicians can choose appropriate antibiotics, avoiding antibacterial drug overuse and MDR bacteria development.


intensive care unit acquired infections, multidrug resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance.

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