INFECTION OF URINARY TRACT IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

Gordana Milovan Smieško

Abstract


Urinary infections are, by frequency, in the second place, immediately behind respiratory infections. The prevalence of urinary tract infections is generally increasing. UTI (urinary tract infections) is more common in women and very young people. The rates of occurrence generally reflect predisposing factors such as congenital anomalies in childhood, the onset of sexual activity, especially in women, and, of course, postmenopausal changes in older women. It is assumed that 50-60% of women can expect an episode of urinary infection during their lifetime. In postmenopausal women, there is a deficit in estrogen. It is one of the important factors that indirectly protects the vaginal mucous membranes as well as the uroepitel from infection. Bacteria from the digestive tract colonize the skin of the perineum, then the vulva, the vagina and the outer opening of the urethra. Normal vaginal flora (lactobacilli) protects the vagina from colonization by fecal bacteria because it lowers pH and creates unfavorable conditions for survival of bacteria.


Keywords


urinary tract, infections, menopausal, women

Full Text:

PDF

References


Foxman B, Brown P. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: transmission and risk factors,incidence, and costs. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003; 17(2):227–41.

Wagenlehner FME, Hoyme U, Kaase M,Fünfstück R, Naber KG, Schmiemann G. Clinical practice guideline: uncomplicated urinary tract nfections. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011;108(24):415-23.

Ronald A. The etiology of urinary tract infection:traditional and emerging pathogens. Am J Med.2002;113(suppl 1A):14S–19S.

Epp A, Larochelle A, Lovatsis D, Walter JE, Easton W, Farrell SA et al. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can.2010;32(11):1082-90.

Kodner CM, Gupton EKT. Recurrent urinary tract infections in women: dyagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(6):638-43.

Aso T, Uchiyama S, Matsumura Y, Taguchi M, Nozaki M, Takamatsu K, et al. A natural S-equol supplement alleviates hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms in equol nonproducing postmenopausal Japanese women. Journal of Women’s Health. 2012;21(1):92–100.

Benrubi GI. Hand book of obstetric and gynecologic emergencies (Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,2010.

Cibulka NJ, Barron ML. Guidelines for nurse practitioners in ambulatory obstetric settings (New York, Springer Publishing Company,2013.

Hooton TM. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection. N Engl J Med 2012;366(11):1028-37.

Stamm WE, Norrby SR. Urinary tract infections: disease panorama and challenges. J Infect Dis. 2001;183(suppl 1):S1-4.

Berger-Jekić O, Dinić M, Đukić S, Jelesić Z, Kocić B, Kulauzov M et al. Medicinska bakteriologija. Beograd; Savremena administracija a.d., 2008.

Johnsson KM, Ptaszynska A, Schmitz B, Sugg J, Parikh SJ, List JF. Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes treated with dapagliflozin. J Diabetes Complications. 2013; 27(5): 473-8.

Mc Cormick T, Ashe RG, Kearney PM. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist. 2008; 10(3): 156-62.

Soto MS. Importance of biofilms in urinary tract infections: new therapeutic approaches. Advances in Biology. 2014;13.

Ramakrishnan K, Scheid DC. Diagnosis and management of acute pyelonephritis in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2005;71(5):933-42.

Pallett A, Hand K. Complicated urinary tract infections: practical solutions for the treatment of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010;65(3):iii25–33.

Young JL, Soper DE. Urinalysis and urinary tract infection: update for clinicians. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2001;9(4):249–55.

Wilson ML, Gaido L. Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections in adult patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(8):1150–8.

Knottnerus BJ, Bindels PJE, Geerlings SE, Moll van Charante EP, Ter Riet G. Optimizing the diagnostic work-up of acute uncomplicated urinarytract infections. BMC Fam Pract 2008;9:64 doi:10.1186/1471-2296-9-64

Burdi EM, Kehl SK. A critical appraisal of the role of the clinical microbiology laboratory in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49(9):S34–8.

Grabe M, Bartoletti R, Bjerklund Johansen TE, Cai T, Çek M, Köves B et al. Guidelines on urological infections. European Association of Urology 2015. Available online at:http://uroweb.org/wp-content/uploads/19-Urological-infections_LR2.pdf.

Fihn SD. Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. N Engl J Med. 2003;349(3):259-66.

Franz M, Hörl WH. Common errors in diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection. I: Pathophysiology and diagnostic techniques. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999;14 (11): 2746-53.

Nicolle LE. Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Urol Clin N Am. 2008;35(1):1–12.

Schmiemann G, Kniehl E, Gebhardt K, Matejczyk MM, Hummers-Pradier E. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection: a systematic review. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010;107(21):361– 7.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24125/sanamed.v14i2.327

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Gordana Milovan Smieško

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.