Muhammed Ali Ayvaz, Selim Turfan, Tuğrul Kesicioğlu, Ahmet Cumhur Dülger, Arzu Ayraler, Abdüssamed Vural, Oğuz Dikbaş


Introduction: Previous studies showed that refugee status have been associated with various deteriorated effects on human health including higher prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV infections. In this study we aim to bridge the gap between Afghan immigrants and naive Turkish population by identifying HBV, HCV and HIV profiles. In addition, a large number of laboratory parameters was collected for all participants, including hematologic and biochemical test results.

Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of laboratory records at a tertiary center in Northern Turkey from January 1, 2018, to April 15, 2018. Our population based study comprising hospital data of 403 Afghan refugees and 400 naive Turkish citizens. Results: Afghan refugees had higher anti-HIV seropositivity than Turkish citizens.(p<0.05).There were no difference between the two groups according to HbsAg and anti-HCV seropositivity.  Also Afghan refugees had statistically lower ALT levels, higher hemoglobin levels and higher mean TSH level (p<0.05). Mean T4 level did not show significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusion: We need further investigations to find out the risk of infections that originated from immigration.


Immigrants, Infectious diseases, Viral Hepatitis, AIDS

Full Text:



Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095–128.

World Health Organization . Global distribution of hepatitis A, B and C. Weekly Epidemiological Record.: WHO; 2002.

Stempel C, Sami N, Koga PM, Alemi Q, Smith V, Shirazi A. Gendered Sources of Distress and Resilience among Afghan Refugees in Northern California: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;14(1):E25.

Shepard CW1, Simard EP, Finelli L, Fiore AE, Bell BP. Hepatitis B virus infection: epidemiology and vaccination. Epidemiol Rev. 2006;28:112-25.

Quddus A, Luby SP, Jamal Z, Jafar T. Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in Balochistan, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10(3):242-7.

Todd CS, Nasir A, Mansoor GF, Sahibzada SM, Jagodzinski LL, Salimi F, et al. Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:196.

Todd CS, Nasir A, Stanekzai MR, Fiekert K, Rasuli MZ, Vlahov D, et al Prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection and harm reduction program use among male injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan: A cross-sectional assessment. Harm Reduct J. 2011;8:22.

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2012;57(1):167-85.

Igde FA, Taskin H,Igde M, Yazici Z, Atilla A. Where we are in the fight against Hepatitis B Infection; Trends in Hepatitis B virus seroprevalence in Black Sea Region of Turke. Niger J Clin Pract.2018;21(1):87-92.

Khanani MR, Ansari AS, Khan S, Somani M, Kazmi SU, Ali SH. Concentrated epidemics of HIV, HCV, and HBV among Afghan refugees. J Infect. 2010;61(5):434-7.

Liang TJ, Ward JW. Hepatitis C in injection-drug users - a hidden danger of the opioid epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(13):1169-71.

Kalem F,Yuksekkaya S,Basaranoglu M. The seroprevalence of both hepatitis B and hepatitis C at the first-step health organizations and the difference between the urban and rural areas.Wien Clin Wochenschr. 2016;128(19-20):695-9.

Todd CS, Nasir A, Stanekzai MR, Fiekert K, Sipsma HL, Vlahov D, et al. Hepatitis C and HIV incidence and harm reduction program use in a conflict setting: an observational cohort of injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan. Harm Reduct J. 2015;12:22.

Chemaitelly H, Mahmud S, Rahmani AM, Abu-Raddad LJ. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Afghanistan: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;40:54-63.

Ozdemir B, Yetkin MA, Bastug A, But A, Aslaner H, Akinci E, Bodur H. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features and mortality of 144 HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey. HIV Clin Trials. 2018;19(22):69-74.

Ruiseñor-Escudero H, Wirtz AL, Berry M, Mfochive-Njindan I, Paikan F, Yousufi HA, et al. Risky behavior and correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus infection among people who inject drugs in three cities in Afghanistan. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;143:127-33.

Ergür AT, Evliyaoğlu O, Şıklar Z, Bilir P, Öcal G, Berberoğlu M. Evaluation of thyroid functions with respect to iodine status and TRH test in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011; 3(1): 18-21.

Heydarian P, Ordookhani A, Azizi F. Goiter rate, serum thyrotropin, thyroid autoantibodies and urinary iodine concentration in Tehranian adults before and after national salt iodization. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007; 30(5): 404-10.

Ramalingaswami V. Endemic goiter in Southeast Asia. New clothes on an old body.

Ann Intern Med. 1973;78(2):277-83.

Liu CF, Zhou WN, Lu Z, Wang XT, Qiu ZH. The associations between liver enzymes and the risk of metabolic syndrome in the elderly. Exp Gerontol. 2018;106:132-6.

Ferraioli G, Tinelli C, De Silvestri A, Lissandrin R, Above E, Dellafiore C et al. The clinical value of controlled attenuation parameter for the noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis. Liver Int 2016;36(12):1860-6.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Muhammed Ali Ayvaz, Selim Turfan, Tuğrul Kesicioğlu, Ahmet Cumhur Dülger, Arzu Ayraler, Abdüssamed Vural, Oğuz Dikbaş

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.