Introduction: Previous studies showed that refugee status have been associated with various deteriorated effects on human health including higher prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV infections. In this study we aim to bridge the gap between Afghan immigrants and naive Turkish population by identifying HBV, HCV and HIV profiles. In addition, a large number of laboratory parameters was collected for all participants, including hematologic and biochemical test results.

Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of laboratory records at a tertiary center in Northern Turkey from January 1, 2018, to April 15, 2018. Our population based study comprising hospital data of 403 Afghan refugees and 400 naive Turkish citizens. Results: Afghan refugees had higher anti-HIV seropositivity than Turkish citizens.(p<0.05).There were no difference between the two groups according to HbsAg and anti-HCV seropositivity. Also Afghan refugees had statistically lower ALT levels, higher hemoglobin levels and higher mean TSH level (p<0.05). Mean T4 level did not show significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusion: We need further investigations to find out the risk of infections that originated from immigration.


Immigrants, Infectious diseases, Viral Hepatitis, AIDS

Full Text:



Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095–128.

World Health Organization . Global distribution of hepatitis A, B and C. Weekly Epidemiological Record.: WHO; 2002.

Stempel C, Sami N, Koga PM, Alemi Q, Smith V, Shirazi A. Gendered Sources of Distress and Resilience among Afghan Refugees in Northern California: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;14(1):E25.

Shepard CW1, Simard EP, Finelli L, Fiore AE, Bell BP. Hepatitis B virus infection: epidemiology and vaccination. Epidemiol Rev. 2006;28:112-25.

Quddus A, Luby SP, Jamal Z, Jafar T. Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in Balochistan, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10(3):242-7.

Todd CS, Nasir A, Mansoor GF, Sahibzada SM, Jagodzinski LL, Salimi F, et al. Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:196.

Todd CS, Nasir A, Stanekzai MR, Fiekert K, Rasuli MZ, Vlahov D, et al Prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection and harm reduction program use among male injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan: A cross-sectional assessment. Harm Reduct J. 2011;8:22.

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines: management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2012;57(1):167-85.

Igde FA, Taskin H,Igde M, Yazici Z, Atilla A. Where we are in the fight against Hepatitis B Infection; Trends in Hepatitis B virus seroprevalence in Black Sea Region of Turke. Niger J Clin Pract.2018;21(1):87-92.

Khanani MR, Ansari AS, Khan S, Somani M, Kazmi SU, Ali SH. Concentrated epidemics of HIV, HCV, and HBV among Afghan refugees. J Infect. 2010;61(5):434-7.

Liang TJ, Ward JW. Hepatitis C in injection-drug users - a hidden danger of the opioid epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(13):1169-71.

Kalem F,Yuksekkaya S,Basaranoglu M. The seroprevalence of both hepatitis B and hepatitis C at the first-step health organizations and the difference between the urban and rural areas.Wien Clin Wochenschr. 2016;128(19-20):695-9.

Todd CS, Nasir A, Stanekzai MR, Fiekert K, Sipsma HL, Vlahov D, et al. Hepatitis C and HIV incidence and harm reduction program use in a conflict setting: an observational cohort of injecting drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan. Harm Reduct J. 2015;12:22.

Chemaitelly H, Mahmud S, Rahmani AM, Abu-Raddad LJ. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Afghanistan: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;40:54-63.

Ozdemir B, Yetkin MA, Bastug A, But A, Aslaner H, Akinci E, Bodur H. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features and mortality of 144 HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey. HIV Clin Trials. 2018;19(22):69-74.

Ruiseñor-Escudero H, Wirtz AL, Berry M, Mfochive-Njindan I, Paikan F, Yousufi HA, et al. Risky behavior and correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus infection among people who inject drugs in three cities in Afghanistan. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;143:127-33.

Ergür AT, Evliyao?lu O, ??klar Z, Bilir P, Öcal G, Berbero?lu M. Evaluation of thyroid functions with respect to iodine status and TRH test in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011; 3(1): 18-21.

Heydarian P, Ordookhani A, Azizi F. Goiter rate, serum thyrotropin, thyroid autoantibodies and urinary iodine concentration in Tehranian adults before and after national salt iodization. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007; 30(5): 404-10.

Ramalingaswami V. Endemic goiter in Southeast Asia. New clothes on an old body.

Ann Intern Med. 1973;78(2):277-83.

Liu CF, Zhou WN, Lu Z, Wang XT, Qiu ZH. The associations between liver enzymes and the risk of metabolic syndrome in the elderly. Exp Gerontol. 2018;106:132-6.

Ferraioli G, Tinelli C, De Silvestri A, Lissandrin R, Above E, Dellafiore C et al. The clinical value of controlled attenuation parameter for the noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis. Liver Int 2016;36(12):1860-6.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.